Cómo tomar glutamina y por qué: todo lo que necesitas saber

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¿Sabes para qué sirve y cómo tomar glutamina? Muchos saben que la glutamina es uno de los 20 aminoácidos responsables de la composición de las proteínas. Pero además de saber lo que es, debemos saber por qué la glutamina es una sustancia ampliamente utilizada en el mundo del fitness. Más información en este artículo.

El papel de la glutamina

Antes de saber cómo tomar la glutamina, debemos saber para qué sirve. Es una de las pocas moléculas de aminoácidos que tiene dos átomos de nitrógeno y por lo tanto se considera muy importante en términos de funciones metabólicas. Cuando la glutamina es sintetizada, el cuerpo es «purificado» del amoníaco presente en los tejidos y el cerebro.

Además, es el aminoácido con mayor presencia en músculos y sangre y que neutraliza el exceso de ácido láctico, que se genera por la práctica de ejercicios aeróbicos intensos. Este ácido es una de las causas de la fatiga muscular y del catabolismo.

Otro beneficio de la glutamina es que previene la pérdida de masa muscular cuando estamos en reposo o después del entrenamiento cardiovascular.

Déficit de glutamina

La glutamina está naturalmente presente en nuestro cuerpo, pero en ciertos momentos sus niveles pueden disminuir. Una de las principales causas de esta deficiencia de aminoácidos es el estrés, que debilita el sistema inmunológico.

También puede aparecer debido a la intensidad del ejercicio. Si, por ejemplo, aumentamos la frecuencia (días que entrenamos) o cambiamos el entrenamiento a uno «más fuerte», su cantidad en el cuerpo puede caer. Cuando el cuerpo no es capaz de producir la cantidad adecuada de glutamina que necesita, tenemos ciertos síntomas o signos, incluyendo:

  • Fatiga excesiva
  • Retraso en la recuperación
  • Disminución del apetito
  • Letargo todo el día
  • Mal humor
  • Susceptibilidad a infecciones
Mira también:   La mejor comida después del deporte

Cómo tomar glutamina: glutamina como suplemento

Debido a sus virtudes sobre nuestra masa muscular, la glutamina se ha convertido en un suplemento alimenticio ampliamente utilizado por los atletas. Al tomarlo, evitamos que los músculos ejercitados pierdan volumen.

También es utilizado por atletas que han dejado el entrenamiento debido a una lesión o enfermedad para evitar una consecuente reducción de los músculos. Debido a su «poder de construcción», la glutamina también se prescribe para pacientes con VIH y cáncer avanzado.

Además, puede ser beneficioso para pacientes con artritis, úlceras pépticas o enfermedades de inmunodeficiencia.

Aunque la glutamina se comercializa en forma de cápsulas o polvos (que se consumen con el estómago vacío), también está presente en alimentos -tanto de origen vegetal como animal- que contienen una buena cantidad de proteínas.

El problema con esta opción natural es que el aminoácido es destruido por la acción del calor. Por lo tanto, al cocinar alimentos, se pierden sus propiedades. Las fuentes de glutamina son: productos lácteos, carne (cruda o ahumada), huevos, cerdo, pavo, salmón, espinacas, perejil, col y también frutas secas y alimentos fermentados como el misô, por ejemplo.

Glutamina para atletas

Aunque este aminoácido es importante para todos, se vuelve esencial para aquellos que practican deportes porque permite una mayor recuperación muscular y una reducción del dolor después del entrenamiento. También se valora porque previene la propagación de resfriados o enfermedades virales comunes en los gimnasios.

Para saber cuánta glutamina consumes, es muy importante consultar al entrenador o al médico encargado de la dieta. Los dos aspectos que interfieren con la dosis son el peso corporal y también el tipo y la cantidad de ejercicio realizado.

Mira también:   6 grandes mentiras de la nutrición deportiva

Es normal consumir entre 2 y 30 gramos por día para aumentar los niveles de aminoácidos en la sangre. La cantidad mínima se recomienda para las personas inactivas y la máxima para las personas que se forman a nivel profesional o competitivo.

Si come más de 10 gramos al día, la dosis debe dividirse por la mitad . Además, los momentos más apropiados para la ingestión son cuando nos levantamos, antes o después del entrenamiento y antes de acostarnos. Se recomienda no mezclar con alimentos o bebidas calientes, ya que pueden disminuir los efectos. Tampoco es bueno acompañarlo con jugos cítricos.

Si tiene más preguntas sobre cómo tomar glutamina, no dude en consultar a su médico de confianza. Esto le informará sobre los posibles efectos secundarios y, sobre todo, sobre la dosis correcta.

Cómo elegir un complemento alimenticio Construir un cuerpo atlético requiere cuotas extra de proteínas, vitaminas y minerales. Pero, ¿sabe cómo elegir un suplemento para estos nutrientes? Leer más

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