Ejercicio físico para los adultos mayores

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La idea de que las personas mayores sentadas en un banco viendo pasar la vida debe ser completamente erradicada. Esto se debe a que el ejercicio físico en los adultos mayores puede ser la diferencia entre una vida sana y una con problemas de salud.

Aunque el descanso no sea un problema, debe combinarse con una vida activa que ponga a trabajar los músculos y los huesos. Este consejo no tiene edad, ya que no hay una edad adecuada para practicar deportes.

¿Quién dijo que con el paso de los años la persona debería dejar de moverse? Por el contrario, la actividad física se hace aún más necesaria a partir de los 65 años.

Esto se debe a que muchas de estas personas se jubilan a esta edad y ya no son tan activas como antes, por lo que el gasto energético debería ser sustituido por un ejercicio de su elección.

Hoy en día las posibilidades son muy amplias: hay deportes, equipos de ejercicio en casa y también lugares y grupos destinados al ejercicio físico para adultos mayores. Debemos ser conscientes de la importancia central de este aspecto en esta fase de la vida.

Beneficios del ejercicio en adultos mayores

Como todos los demás, los adultos mayores se benefician enormemente de la actividad física. Algunos de los efectos positivos que produce son:

  • Reduce las tasas de mortalidad por todas las causas : enfermedades cardíacas, hipertensión, accidente cerebrovascular, diabetes, cáncer de colon y de mama y depresión.
  • Además, mejora significativamente el rendimiento del sistema cardiorrespiratorio y muscular.
  • Fortalece los músculos , crea una buena masa corporal y mejora la salud ósea.
  • Mejora la salud funcional , ya que reduce el riesgo de caídas y las limitaciones funcionales moderadas y severas.
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¿Cuánto ejercicio deben hacer los adultos mayores?

Según lo establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud , los ejercicios físicos ideales para este grupo de edad consisten en:

  • Actividades recreativas o de ocio , como juegos de baja intensidad.
  • Ejercicios de desplazamiento : caminando o en bicicleta.
  • Actividades ocupacionales : es decir, las relacionadas con el alcance del trabajo.
  • Tareas domésticas : ciertamente las tareas domésticas son demasiado buenas para mantenerse activas.
  • Juegos o deportes familiares : además de contribuir en el plano físico, tienen un claro impacto positivo en el aspecto emocional.

Respecto a la duración de los ejercicios, este mismo órgano recomienda 150 minutos por semana para actividades físicas aeróbicas moderadas.

Si se trata de actividades algo más intensas, por otro lado, el tiempo sugerido es de 75 minutos por semana. Además, también es válido combinar las dos modalidades midiendo el tiempo con prudencia. El mínimo por sesión debe ser de 10 minutos.

Además, para aquellos que logran prolongar la actividad moderada por más tiempo, un máximo de 300 minutos por semana puede aumentar los beneficios del ejercicio físico en los adultos mayores. La actividad vigorosa también se puede aumentar a 150 minutos por semana.

Por último, con respecto a las personas con movilidad reducida, es aconsejable hacer ejercicios al menos tres veces a la semana. En este caso, el objetivo es mejorar el equilibrio y fortalecer los principales grupos musculares. Si esto no es posible, el tipo de ejercicio debe adaptarse a las posibilidades de cada persona.

¿Cuáles son las actividades recomendadas?

En primer lugar, el ejercicio en los adultos mayores se puede dividir en cuatro tipos. El primero incluye ejercicios aeróbicos o de resistencia. En este grupo tenemos caminatas, carreras, natación, baile o ciclismo. Todos ayudan a mejorar el funcionamiento del corazón y del sistema respiratorio.

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Sus efectos pueden ser comprobados en la energía y vitalidad para realizar las acciones diarias. De manera similar, son muy efectivos en la prevención de enfermedades relacionadas con el envejecimiento.

Por otro lado, tenemos los ejercicios de fuerza. En este caso, hacer ejercicio con elásticos o pesas fortalece los músculos. De hecho, estos ejercicios proporcionan independencia y ayudan a prevenir enfermedades como la osteoporosis.

Por el contrario, los ejercicios de equilibrio , el tercer grupo, contribuyen a prevenir caídas y a mejorar la postura. Esto incluye muchas actividades simples que se pueden hacer en forma de juegos.

Finalmente, citaremos los ejercicios de flexibilidad. Sin duda, su importancia es muy grande, ya que sirven para estirar los músculos, evitar que se atrofien y ayudar a relajar el cuerpo. Tanto en este caso como dentro de los ejercicios de equilibrio podemos incluir Yoga y otras disciplinas de este estilo.

Por supuesto, todo lo mencionado anteriormente está ligado a las posibilidades físicas de cada persona. Por lo tanto, una cita con el médico e incluso los controles necesarios son una excelente idea antes de comenzar el ejercicio.

¿Cómo empezar a correr después de los 40? Una guía completa ¿Crees que a partir de cierta edad ya no podemos empezar a hacer nuevos ejercicios? He aquí cómo empezar a correr después de los 40. Leer más «

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