Conocer cuál es el índice glucémico y su importancia en la pérdida de peso


Tal vez nunca has oído hablar del índice glucémico. Este indicador es de particular interés para usted si es diabético o si necesita controlar el nivel de azúcar que consume. Si quieres saber más sobre este índice, sigue leyendo y te diremos para qué es, para qué sirve y cuál es tu puntuación.

¿Qué es el índice glucémico?

El índice glucémico es una forma de clasificar los carbohidratos de acuerdo a cómo afectan el nivel de glucosa del cuerpo. A menudo se le llama GI en forma abreviada. Esta escala va de 0, el nivel más bajo, a 100, siendo éste el valor más alto.

El índice glucémico de un alimento estará determinado por tres factores:

  • Modo de preparación. Cuanto más cocido esté un alimento, mayor será su índice glucémico. El más bajo se encuentra en el producto crudo y el más alto en el asado o triturado después de ser cocido.
  • Forma del alimento . El consumo de cereales enteros o partidos cambia drásticamente su índice glucémico. Los granos enteros son más difíciles de digerir, por lo que su liberación de glucosa es más lenta que si se hubieran roto.
  • Cantidad de fibra. Dependiendo de la cantidad de fibra que contenga el alimento, la glucosa se absorberá más o menos rápidamente. Por lo tanto, cuanto mayor sea la cantidad de fibra, más gradual será el aumento de la glucosa en la sangre.

Dependiendo de si la glucosa aumenta rápidamente o más gradualmente, el índice de carbohidratos se clasifica de la siguiente manera:

  • Bajo . Alimentos con IG inferior a 55
  • Medio . Alimentos con IG entre 55 y 69
  • Alto. Alimentos con IG entre 10 y 100.
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¿Para qué sirve?

Conocer el índice glucémico de los alimentos es importante para tener una dieta correcta. Hay momentos en los que estamos interesados en una rápida liberación de glucosa, mientras que en otros momentos es preferible que tome más tiempo.

Si tenemos una glucosa libérame un momento que no gastaremos energía, esta energía puede ser almacenada en forma de grasa. Por lo tanto, hay ocasiones en las que es menos dañino comer alimentos con alto contenido glucémico.

En general, podemos decir que este índice es de especial interés para dos grupos de personas: atletas y diabéticos.

Índice glucémico y atletas

Los atletas deben prestar especial atención a la dieta y al índice glucémico. Necesitan que su cuerpo esté preparado tanto para el entrenamiento como para la competición. También es importante comer adecuadamente después del ejercicio para que su cuerpo pueda recuperarse del esfuerzo físico.

  • Antes del entrenamiento. Se recomienda consumir alimentos con un índice glucémico bajo o medio. De esta manera, la liberación de glucosa es menor y consume más tiempo con el tiempo.
  • En competición . Si se trata de una competición en la que es necesario hacer un gran esfuerzo físico durante un largo periodo de tiempo, puede ser que los hidratos de carbono consumidos anteriormente no sean suficientes. Lleva barras energéticas o complementos alimenticios especiales contigo a la competencia. De esta manera, obtendrá un empuje adicional cuando más lo necesite.
  • Después del esfuerzo físico. Parece que después de la competencia todo ha terminado, pero no es así. Todavía queda un trabajo muy importante por hacer: la recuperación. Nutre tu cuerpo con hidratos de carbono con un alto índice glucémico para recuperar todos los nutrientes perdidos durante el ejercicio.
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Índice glucémico y diabetes

Las personas diabéticas deben prestar especial atención al índice glucémico de los alimentos. Aquellos que sufren de esta enfermedad tienen el problema de que su páncreas no segrega insulina o no segrega lo suficiente. Es por eso que necesitan suministrar esta falta de insulina con inyecciones o comprimidos.

Los diabéticos deben descartar los productos con un alto índice glucémico en su dieta . Minutos después de consumirlos, hay un aumento repentino de la glucosa que puede tener graves consecuencias para su salud.

Algunos de los productos de este tipo son: pan blanco, miel , puré de patatas, azúcar o arroz. Por eso, en el caso de su consumo, la porción debe ser muy pequeña y además consumida sólo de vez en cuando.

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