Intolerancia a la lactosa: síntomas y alternativas

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La intolerancia a la lactosa ocurre cuando el cuerpo no puede digerir la lactosa , el azúcar que se encuentra naturalmente en la leche . La causa de esta intolerancia es la deficiencia de una enzima llamada lactasa , que es responsable de dividir la lactosa en dos azúcares simples durante la digestión.

Síntomas de intolerancia a la lactosa

Vamos a enumerar los síntomas que puede tener después de ingerir lactosa si tiene intolerancia. Estos síntomas se observan entre treinta minutos y dos horas después del consumo de alimentos que contienen lactosa .

  • Náuseas: Sensación de malestar que se siente con ansiedades y que generalmente termina en vómitos.
  • Hinchazón abdominal
  • Dolor abdominal

  • Distensión abdominal: aumentó el volumen abdominal.
  • Sonidos abdominales : son los sonidos generados por el movimiento de gases a través del intestino.
  • Gases: aire en el tracto digestivo.
  • Diarrea: Anomalía intestinal caracterizada por una mayor frecuencia, fluidez y, a menudo, volumen de las deposiciones.
  • Heces con mal olor.
  • Pérdida de peso.

En algunos casos también puede producirse estreñimiento debido a una disminución de la motilidad intestinal como consecuencia del aumento de las bacterias productoras de metano.

Causas de la deficiencia de lactasa

La deficiencia de lactasa puede ser primaria – el individuo nace con tendencia a tenerla – o secundaria – cuando la intolerancia a la lactosa se adquiere a lo largo de la vida debido a algún problema intestinal.

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Rara vez la intolerancia a la lactosa ya puede estar presente en los primeros meses de vida debido a un defecto genético que hace que la paciente no produzca ninguna cantidad de lactasa.

El bebé es intolerante a la leche materna, que naturalmente tiene más lactosa que la leche de vaca, y por lo tanto necesita ser alimentado con fórmulas especiales sin lactosa.

La intolerancia secundaria a la lactosa es la que ocurre debido a una enfermedad o después de una cirugía intestinal. Ejemplos de enfermedades que causan deficiencia de lactasa:

  • Enfermedad celíaca
  • Enfermedad de Crohn
  • Diarrea causada por gastroenteritis viral
  • Giardiasis
  • Diabetes mellitus avanzada
  • Quimioterapia
  • SIDA

Diagnóstico de la intolerancia a la lactosa

En general, el diagnóstico de intolerancia a esta sustancia se realiza clínicamente y se basa únicamente en la historia clínica y los síntomas del paciente. Sin embargo, si el médico considera necesario confirmar el diagnóstico con pruebas complementarias, dos pruebas son las más utilizadas:

1- Prueba de respiración para verificar la eliminación de hidrógeno

Dado que los pacientes con intolerancia a esta sustancia producen grandes cantidades de hidrógeno en el colon y, en general, eliminamos pequeñas cantidades a través de los pulmones, esta prueba consiste en verificar el hidrógeno en el aire exhalado después del consumo de lactosa.

2- Examen de tolerancia a la lactosa

Después de ingerir esta sustancia, medimos la glucosa en la sangre para verificar si había un aumento en los niveles . En las personas sanas, la lactosa se descompone en glucosa y galactosa y luego se reabsorbe en el intestino y se libera en el torrente sanguíneo.

En pacientes con deficiencia de lactasa, esta sustancia no es digerida y por lo tanto la glucosa contenida en ella no es absorbida. Por lo tanto, la elevación de la glucosa en sangre es discreta en estos pacientes.

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Alternativas a la intolerancia

La alternativa ideal debería ser una leche con diferentes contenidos , con suficiente valor nutritivo y sabor agradable….

Proteína hidrolizada

Se produce por calor o por hidrólisis de las proteínas originales de la leche de vaca, su valor nutritivo es adecuado y su sabor agradable.

Indicado para intolerancias y diarreas crónicas

  • Leche ampliamente hidrolizada:
    De caseína
    Suero
    Soya + colágeno de cerdo
  • Leche ligeramente hidrolizada
    De suero
    Suero de leche + caseína

Leches de soja

Compuestos de proteína de soja con aceites vegetales y carbohidratos.

Indicado para la alergia a las proteínas de la leche de vaca

  • Maíz
  • Almidón
  • Sacarosa
  • Maltodextrina
  • Polímeros de glucosa

Por lo tanto, si usted tiene alguno de los síntomas mencionados anteriormente, no dude en consultar a su médico y elegir otras alternativas para la leche si sufre de intolerancia. Además, recuerda que puedes intentar, después de un cierto tiempo, volver a introducir la lactosa poco a poco.

4 razones para leer las etiquetas de los alimentos Las etiquetas de los alimentos nos dan más que información valiosa y debemos prestarle atención cuando hacemos compras o preparamos alimentos. Descubre por qué! Leer más «

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