La importancia de la hidratación en la práctica deportiva: antes, durante y después

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El cuerpo humano puede soportar 15 días sin comer, pero sólo 3 días sin agua en una situación de «descanso». Después de un ejercicio aeróbico intenso, como una maratón de tres horas, podemos enfrentarnos a la deshidratación en unas pocas horas si no estamos bien preparados. La importancia de la hidratación en la práctica deportiva es, por tanto, enorme.

El mercado ofrece una multitud de bebidas para atletas con una amplia variedad de características y funciones . Disponemos de bebidas para diferentes deportes, dependiendo de la intensidad del ejercicio y de las necesidades del mismo. Y también tenemos bebidas que incluyen sustancias ergogénicas – que nos hacen funcionar mejor .

Pero no sólo tenemos que decidir qué tipo de bebida necesitamos, sino en qué momento de la actividad debemos consumirla. Su cantidad, composición, temperatura, entre otros factores, dependerá del tipo de deporte y del momento de ejercicio.

La importancia de la hidratación en la práctica deportiva: qué influye

Si su ejercicio implica ir al gimnasio unas horas al día, mantenga la calma. Hidratarse regularmente mientras está allí, especialmente en actividades cardiovasculares como spinning, zombie o step. La hidratación debe ser proporcional al desgaste del fieltro y a la cantidad de sudor que observamos.

Si prefiere el culturismo o los ejercicios para tonificar sus músculos , es decir, de tipo anaeróbico, sus pérdidas de sudor serán menores . Aun así, se recomienda que se mantenga hidratado, incluso si tiene menos riesgo de deshidratación.

Mira también:   La importancia del atleta para hidratar la piel

El problema con la hidratación es mayor en situaciones de competencia . Cada vez más leemos casos en las noticias de atletas aficionados que necesitaban tratamiento médico para la deshidratación. Así como buscamos en internet «cómo hacer que los glúteos se giren», también deberíamos informarnos sobre la importancia de la hidratación en la práctica deportiva e identificar cuándo nuestro cuerpo se está deshidratando.

Síntomas que necesita hidratar

  • Sensación de sed (obviamente).
  • Si su orina es oscura .
  • Labios y fosas nasales secas.
  • C empieza a sudar menos , aunque mantén el ejercicio.

Si mantenemos el ejercicio a pesar de todos estos síntomas durante el ejercicio podemos sentir:

  • Más fatiga de la esperada.
  • Mareos .
  • .

  • Pérdida de la vista.
  • Me desmayo.

Si llegas aquí, espero que tengas un equipo médico cerca.

¿Qué puedo hacer al respecto?

Es importante que lleguemos al ejercicio o competición bien hidratados . Esto no significa que bebamos un litro de agua 10 minutos antes de comenzar la actividad. Si hacemos esto nos hincharemos, tendremos dolores digestivos debidos al movimiento y a la cantidad de agua y finalmente nos veremos obligados a parar. ¡No deberíamos tener actitudes exageradas!

«Practicar deportes te hace sentir vivo»

-Rafael Nadal-

Si en los días previos al ejercicio o competición hemos bebido cantidades adecuadas de líquidos (unos 2 litros diarios) y alimentos ricos en agua, como frutas y verduras , esto será suficiente.

Bebiendo alrededor de 220 ml de líquido antes de empezar a hacer ejercicio y habiendo planeado la posibilidad de beber una bebida durante la actividad en caso de que ésta sea muy larga , podemos estar satisfechos.

En el peor de los casos…

Si eres una persona relativamente en forma pero no haces ejercicio físico intenso y todos tus amigos han acordado unirse a una media maratón juntos , presta atención Ya que vas a hacer esto o algo así, tomémoslo un poco en serio. Será necesario cuidar la comida varios días antes, además de conocer la ruta y dónde estarán las posibilidades de hidratación….

Mira también:   Somatotipos: ¿sabe a cuál pertenece?

Consejos previos a la competición

Llega el día, 35° C a la sombra…. Si planeabas beber 220 ml antes de hacer ejercicio, aumenta a 500 ml, para tener en cuenta las pérdidas debidas a las altas temperaturas.

Si, en cambio, decides tomar un Powerade, que es lo que hacen los demás, está bien, ya que es una bebida isotónica y te ayudará a absorberla rápidamente. ¿Y que hace mucho frío, porque hace calor? ¡Equivocado! Si hace demasiado frío, tardará más tiempo en absorberse y puede provocarle dolor gastrointestinal. La mejor temperatura para beber es entre 15-20ºC .

Consejos durante la competición

¿Existe la posibilidad de hidratarse en la marca de 10 km, a mitad del recorrido? Disfrute! Esta es tu oportunidad de reemplazar sales y electrolitos. Sé consciente de tu cuerpo, es mejor parar antes de sufrir una infelicidad. 

Publicar el aviso de la competencia

Agotado después de completar el maratón, alguien te ofrece una botella de agua y bebes como si no hubiera mañana? Relájate, toma unos sorbos y espera, acabas de hacer un ejercicio muy intenso y tu cuerpo todavía se está adaptando .

Si estás demasiado cansado, no tienes hambre, pero saldrás con tus amigos para celebrar la bebida…. Atención ! Es mejor que coma algo para reemplazar los carbohidratos que ha consumido; si bebe alcohol, aumentará la deshidratación . Esperar hasta que se recupere .

Puede parecer que la hidratación es algo que resolvemos con agua potable y nada más, pero hay más factores que influyen en lo que pensamos al principio.  Ahora que conoces la importancia de la hidratación en la práctica de deportes, ten en cuenta este conocimiento antes de entrar en aventuras como ésta.

Mira también:   Consejos y remedios caseros para prevenir la deshidratación

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