Las consecuencias del sobreentrenamiento y la importancia del descanso

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Sin duda, la motivación es una actitud fundamental que todo atleta con ganas de mejorar debe tener. Sin embargo, también puede causar algunos problemas. Si no hacemos las cosas lentamente y dedicamos el tiempo que merece para descansar, podemos sufrir algunas consecuencias del sobreentrenamiento.

¿Por qué es necesario descansar entre los períodos de formación? Para empezar, esta necesidad se debe al hecho de que, cuando nos entrenamos, ciertos fenómenos ocurren en el cuerpo. Para que sean positivos, el cuerpo requiere un tiempo de recuperación adecuado. Cuanto más exigente sea el ejercicio, mayor será la importancia de este descanso.

Por ejemplo, cuando entrenamos en el gimnasio, rompemos componentes de músculos, fibras y tejidos. Luego , , la contraparte de este proceso debe ser un ciclo de recuperación, que es cuando ocurre el crecimiento muscular.

El descanso no sólo es necesario cuando buscamos aumentar la masa muscular; procesos similares también ocurren cuando realizamos otros tipos de ejercicios. Si no tenemos este período de descanso, estaremos cometiendo un error muy común, además del riesgo de sobreentrenamiento.

Síntomas que pueden indicar sobreentrenamiento

  • Cansancio o fatiga : consecuencia directa de la falta de descanso entre sesiones de entrenamiento .
  • El desaliento y la falta de concentración : hacer algo repetidamente, especialmente si requiere esfuerzo, puede pesar en nuestra mente. Por lo tanto, sería normal sentirse desanimado o con dificultades para concentrarse.
  • Bajo rendimiento : como resultado de los dos puntos anteriores, el nivel de rendimiento no será el mismo si caemos en sobreentrenamiento.
  • Trastornos del sueño : ¿Alguna vez le ha pasado que no puede dormir porque está demasiado cansado? Aunque parezca contradictorio, puede ser difícil descansar si entrenamos demasiado.
  • Enfermedades óseas: el sobreentrenamiento causa una disminución en los niveles de estrógeno, lo que puede afectar la salud de los huesos y las articulaciones por la aparición de la osteoporosis. Esto también puede causar cambios hormonales y la desaparición de la menstruación durante la adolescencia.

Además de los síntomas anteriores, que suelen aparecer con más frecuencia, el sobreentrenamiento también puede llevarnos a perder mucho peso, sufrir falta de apetito, ansiedad e incluso depresión . Al mismo tiempo, el sistema inmunológico se ve afectado y esto favorece la aparición de enfermedades y lesiones.

Consejos para no sufrir las consecuencias del sobreentrenamiento

Realizar un entrenamiento progresivo

Primero, es esencial aumentar las cargas lentamente y tratar de no exceder los límites del cuerpo. Incluso durante la semana de entrenamiento es aconsejable intermediar los días de mayor exigencia física y los de carga moderada.

Además, siga una dieta saludable de acuerdo con el tipo de entrenamiento

Esto se debe a que una dieta siempre debe asegurar la ingesta de los nutrientes necesarios.

En este sentido, los alimentos, como siempre, juegan un papel fundamental. Es muy importante proporcionar al cuerpo el «combustible» necesario para reemplazar la energía perdida , así como ofrecer las herramientas para reconstruir músculos y tejidos.

Una de las consecuencias del sobreentrenamiento es una producción exacerbada de cortisol , una hormona generada por las glándulas suprarrenales en situaciones de estrés y presión.

La función del cortisol es movilizar la mente y los músculos para responder en tiempos de alta demanda; para ello aumenta la quema de energía y grasas. Sin embargo, cuando se produce crónicamente , el cortisol conduce a un estado de desintegración muscular que predispone a la fatiga y las lesiones.

Saber cuándo parar

Por lo tanto, si alguna vez ha experimentado alguno de los síntomas anteriores o si siente que no puede con el ritmo de entrenamiento que desea, debe detenerse para evitar lesiones. Para ello, puede reducir la frecuencia, duración e intensidad del entrenamiento para evitar las terribles consecuencias del sobreentrenamiento.

Comience lentamente

El sobreentrenamiento y sus consecuencias son comunes en personas que practican deportes recientemente. Por lo general, el deseo de mejorar hace que se pierda la noción de límites; es entonces cuando surgen los problemas.

No puedes pedirle a tu cuerpo que alcance su máximo en una semana. Esto es algo que se logra lentamente. Por lo tanto, una de las primeras lecciones que un atleta principiante debe registrar en su mente es que el descanso es una parte indispensable del entrenamiento.

Por último, tenga en cuenta que los riesgos del sobreentrenamiento no son exclusivos de un solo deporte, ni de los atletas profesionales. En realidad, pueden pasarle a cualquiera, por supuesto, considerando el potencial y la condición física de cada individuo.

Por lo tanto, es necesario ser moderado y moverse progresivamente en términos de cargas y objetivos. Además de cuidar nuestro cuerpo, también ayudaremos a mantener nuestra mente motivada y satisfecha con el logro de logros realistas y a corto plazo.

Mira también:   Descubra los beneficios de hacer ejercicio 30 minutos al día

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