Lesiones más comunes del hombro: ¿qué podemos hacer para evitarlas?

¡Comparte!

Las lesiones de hombro son muy comunes en los atletas. Esta es una parte compleja del cuerpo y por lo tanto puede ser muy incómoda y afectar su rutina porque se agrava fácilmente con el movimiento.

Ciertamente, el dolor y las lesiones de hombro pueden hacer que sea muy difícil moverse libremente y sin molestias. Además, debe saber que estos tipos de lesiones pueden ser agudas o crónicas, dependiendo de cuándo se diagnostiquen y durante cuánto tiempo se sintió el dolor o la discapacidad.

Sin embargo, la mayoría de los problemas del hombro involucran músculos, ligamentos y tendones en lugar de huesos. La incomodidad puede desarrollarse lentamente a través de rutinas de entrenamiento repetitivas e intensivas. Por lo tanto, es necesario saber cuáles son las lesiones más comunes del hombro y qué hacer para evitarlas.

Lesiones más comunes del hombro

A continuación, se enumeran las lesiones más comunes del hombro en los atletas:

1. tendinitis

La primera de las lesiones más comunes que presentamos en el hombro es la tendinitis. Lo primero que debe saber es que un tendón es una cuerda que conecta el músculo con el hueso y que, en consecuencia, la mayoría de las tendinitis son el resultado de una inflamación del tendón.

Los tendones más comúnmente afectados en el hombro son los cuatro tendones del manguito rotador y uno de los tendones del bíceps.

Mira también:   Aprenda todo sobre las bacterias más comunes en el gimnasio

2. Bursite

Las bursae son pequeñas bolsas llenas de líquido que se encuentran en las articulaciones de todo el cuerpo, incluyendo el hombro. Actúan como cojines entre los huesos y los tejidos blandos que los cubren y ayudan a reducir la fricción entre los músculos deslizantes y el hueso.

A veces el uso excesivo del hombro causa inflamación e hinchazón de la bolsa entre el manguito rotador y parte de la escápula. El resultado es una condición conocida como bursitis subacromial.

3. Inestabilidad

La inestabilidad del hombro ocurre cuando la cabeza del hueso del brazo es forzada a salir del hombro. Esto puede suceder como resultado de una lesión repentina o uso excesivo.

Las dislocaciones de hombro pueden ser parciales, con la parte superior del brazo saliendo parcialmente del accesorio. Esto se llama subluxación. Una dislocación completa significa que la bola está completamente fuera de la cavidad.

Una vez que los ligamentos, tendones y músculos alrededor del hombro se aflojan o se rompen, pueden producirse dislocaciones repetidas. Las dislocaciones recurrentes, que pueden ser parciales o completas, causan dolor e inestabilidad cuando usted levanta el brazo o lo separa del cuerpo. Los episodios repetidos de subluxación o dislocación llevan a un mayor riesgo de desarrollar artritis en la articulación.

«No importa si te derriban; lo que importa es si te levantas».

– Vince Lombardi –

4. Rupturas del tendón

La división y ruptura de los tendones puede ser el resultado de lesiones agudas o cambios degenerativos en los tendones debido a la edad avanzada, uso excesivo a largo plazo, fricción o lesión repentina. Estas rupturas pueden ser parciales o separar completamente el tendón de su fijación al hueso.

En la mayoría de las rupturas completas el tendón se separa del hueso. Las lesiones del tendón del bíceps y del rotador se encuentran entre las más comunes.

5. Hombro Congelado

Esta condición limita enormemente el movimiento de la articulación. Hace que se acumulen bandas de tejido anormal en la articulación, lo que impide la libertad de movimiento en el hombro. Puede suceder porque el dolor o una cirugía lo hizo menos utilizado, permitiendo que las adherencias se acumulen.

6. Artritis

La artritis ocurre cuando las superficies lisas del cartílago que recubre los huesos de la articulación del hombro se desgastan. La causa más común es el uso excesivo. Los tratamientos para la artritis del hombro dependen de la gravedad del dolor.

Sin embargo, en estos casos, se recomienda descansar, antiinflamatorios e inyecciones de cortisona. En algunos casos, se requiere el reemplazo de la articulación del hombro.

Qué puede hacer para evitar lesiones en el hombro

Ahora que conocemos los tipos de lesiones, el primer paso para prevenir las lesiones de hombro es usar equipo de ajuste que se ajuste adecuadamente, especialmente las hombreras. Asegúrese de usar equipo de protección al principio de cada sesión de entrenamiento.

Otra medida preventiva es practicar un enfoque apropiado y técnicas de bloqueo. También debe participar en un programa de fortalecimiento y acondicionamiento para ayudar a fortalecer el hombro y hacerlo más flexible y menos propenso a las lesiones.

Por otro lado, siempre debes escuchar a tu cuerpo. Si le duele el hombro después de hacer cualquier actividad, no lo ignore. Si cree que el dolor es grave y no desaparece, busque un médico.

Por último, te recomendamos que te prepares para el ejercicio de la manera correcta, lo que significa que deberías calentarte antes y después del entrenamiento. Así que comienza a ejercitarse lentamente y progresa lentamente.

Finalmente, no olvide que la gran mayoría de las lesiones más comunes del hombro son causadas por deportes, la práctica de ejercicios extenuantes o el levantamiento de objetos pesados. Por lo tanto, debe prestar especial atención al realizar este tipo de actividad.

Descubre la importancia del estiramiento en los ejercicios de práctica La importancia de estirar antes de hacer ejercicio es muy grande, pero muchos atletas se saltan el estiramiento debido al cansancio.

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