¿Qué sabe acerca del sobreentrenamiento o sobreentrenamiento?

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Lo creas o no, el entrenamiento excesivo puede causar lesiones, fatiga muscular e impedir la consecución de los objetivos establecidos. Es por eso que usted debe tener mucho cuidado de evitar sobrecargar sus músculos o que sus entrenamientos sean mucho más exigentes de lo que su cuerpo puede manejar.

¿Qué es el síndrome de sobreentrenamiento?

Se llama síndrome de sobreentrenamiento o sobreejercicio en términos de intensidad, frecuencia o volumen de entrenamiento. Esto significa ir al gimnasio todos los días, levantar mucho más peso del que deberíamos o elegir disciplinas para las que no estamos preparados, como un maratón.

No se trata sólo de acostarse temprano o de no cumplir con las ocho horas de sueño de cada noche, sino también de no permitir que los músculos se recuperen de un día para otro. Cuando entrenamos diariamente, las fibras no se reparan y es más fácil sufrir lesiones y fatiga.

El sobreentrenamiento ocurre a menudo en atletas profesionales cuando no hay una buena planificación o si se están preparando para una competición importante (por ejemplo, boxeadores o atletas olímpicos).

Lo que muchos no se dan cuenta es que este ejercicio excesivo es contraproducente porque puede incluso arruinar una carrera deportiva cuando las lesiones que aparecen son muy graves o requieren un tratamiento prolongado.

El síndrome de sobreentrenamiento puede ser causado por varios factores, algunos de los cuales tienen que ver con una clara insatisfacción con nuestro cuerpo o nuestro rendimiento. En otros, es un tipo de dependencia que genera bienestar mientras se desarrolla el ejercicio y produce depresión, ansiedad o angustia en reposo.

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En este último caso, está estrechamente relacionado con la acción de hormonas como la adrenalina (que aumenta durante una actividad vigorosa) y la serotonina (que produce buen humor).

Síntomas de sobreentrenamiento

En teoría todo parece muy sencillo, pero en la práctica no lo es, sobre todo cuando no podemos identificar que estamos entrenando mucho (o más de lo que nuestro cuerpo puede soportar).

La buena noticia es que el cuerpo nos da señales muy específicas al respecto. Es sólo cuestión de prestarles atención. El sobreentrenamiento tiene las siguientes consecuencias :

  • Recuperación lenta o incompleta
  • Dolor muscular que no se detiene
  • Fatiga persistente
  • Sensación de piernas cansadas o pesadas
  • Pérdida de motivación (o necesidad de desafíos crecientes)

  • Irritabilidad, cambios de humor
  • Depresión, ansiedad, angustia cuando no está entrenando
  • Cambios en el apetito (gula y otros momentos de apatía)
  • No ver resultados en relación a lo que se está entrenando (estancamiento o regresión)
  • Problemas para dormir, pesadillas, insomnio
  • Aumento de la frecuencia cardíaca (pulso) cuando no hace ejercicio
  • Necesita descansar todo el tiempo
  • Falta de concentración y memoria
  • Calambres musculares
  • Dificultad para relajarse (debido a los altos niveles de adrenalina)
  • Lesiones frecuentes
  • Malestar estomacal, diarrea, vómitos, acidez estomacal
  • Susceptibilidad a enfermedades respiratorias

¿Cómo evitar el sobreentrenamiento?

Las manifestaciones de que estamos entrenando demasiado son diferentes en cada atleta; sin embargo, se pueden reconocer prestando un poco de atención.

Si ha notado algunos de los síntomas del sobreentrenamiento, es necesario que deje de entrenar durante dos semanas. Sí, esto es exactamente lo que está leyendo. Aunque parezca imposible en esta época del año, con un calendario competitivo apretado o con la necesidad de alcanzar una meta determinada.

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Busque la ayuda de un entrenador deportivo para elaborar un calendario eficaz que incluya ejercicios, pero sobre todo períodos de recuperación. Incluso puede indicar que debe reducir el nivel de intensidad o frecuencia con la que entrena.

Tenga en cuenta que el sobreentrenamiento no es bueno para su salud, ni física ni emocionalmente. Contrariamente a lo que se cree, la formación continua te predispone a lesiones y a la pérdida de todo lo que has conseguido hasta ahora. Por lo tanto, en muchos casos, es mejor detenerse y descansar un rato. Tu cuerpo y tu mente te lo agradecerán!

Las consecuencias del sobreentrenamiento y la importancia del descanso ¿Por qué es necesario descansar entre los períodos de formación? Si no le damos tiempo al cuerpo para recuperarse, podemos sufrir las consecuencias del sobreentrenamiento. Leer más «

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